OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of India, Bharat
Capital: New Delhi
President: Ram Nath Kovind
Area: 3,287,466 km2
Largest city: Mumbai
Population: 138 crores (2020)
Official language: Hindi
Native languages: 447 languages
MAJOR RIVERS: Ganges, Yamuna, Indus, Brahmaputra
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Federal republic
MAJOR MOUNTAIN RANGE: Himalaya
Geography of India
India is part of Asia and third largest country in Asia. It is ranked 7th in a list of the largest countries of the world. Most of India forms a peninsula, which means it is surrounded by water on three sides. The highest mountain range in the world rises in the north of the Himalayas. It is bounded on the south-east by the Bay of Bengal and on the south-west by the Arabian Sea.
There are several landforms in India, from the Thar Desert in the west to the forests in the northeast. The fertile plain of the Ganges covers most of northern India. The formation is formed from the soil deposited by the river flowing from the Himalayas. In some places, the silt layer is more than 25,000 feet (7,620 m) deep.
The seven countries that share international borders with India are Bangladesh, China, Afghanistan, Myanmar, Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan. It shares maritime borders with Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia.
India’s coastline is 7516.6 km long covering about 13 states and union territories. The longest international borders of the union states and territories are, West Bengal is 2509.7 km long, Rajasthan is 1170 km long and Arunachal Pradesh is 1817 km long. Nagaland has the smallest international border, which is 125 km. Ladakh is the only union territory that has three international borders with three different countries, Ladakh has its international borders with Pakistan China, and Afghanistan.
An important border line of India
- Line of Control (LOC)
- Line of actual control (LAC)
- Durand line
- Radcliffe line
- McMahon line